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一位波兰记者对米奇尼克的评价

曹长青

波兰团结工会的重要参与者、波兰最大报纸《选举日报》的主编米奇尼克,最近到北京访问,跟一些中国知识人座谈,并上网回答问题。围绕著米奇尼克对中国现状的判断和建议等,在海内外的一些知识份子中间引起了争论。

支持者认为,米奇尼克是“波兰反对派运动的设计者、灵魂人物”。他在波兰的经验,尤其是他给中国知识精英的建议(跟共产党抗衡要讲究策略,注重妥协等),对当今中国的民主运动具有重要意义。

但批评者认为,米奇尼克提出中国的反对派“应该是当权者的合作者”,“只要民间社会采取暴力,就会激起政府暴力,最後的结果是内战。”“现在我们需要等待,等待共产党人意识的变化”。“面对专制要采取革命的话,那必然是实施专制的革命者”等等,不仅和中国现实脱节,更等於是让中国人做顺民。在共产党严酷镇压异议声音的当今中国,反抗和镇压的力量完全不对等的现状下,根本谈不到什麽跟中共妥协、合作、讨价还价;反而是应该启迪和呼唤更多的中国人觉醒,认识到共产党是邪恶这一真实,才可能有机会结束共产统治。

双方的争论逐步升级,最後支持米奇尼克的人提出,海外的流亡人士不如米奇尼克“懂中国”。而批评者则指出,国内的一些知识精英,由於资讯无法完全自由等,可能也不真正了解米奇尼克和波兰。

在双方争论之际,波兰驻台湾的记者沈汉娜(Hanna Shen),在网上读到我的文章“米奇尼克给中国开错药方”之後,来信表示,她完全认同我的观点。沈汉娜在共产波兰出生、成长,後留学美国,近年则常住台湾。她为波兰的报刊写稿,也不时在中文报刊和她的博客http://hannashen.tripod.com上发表关於波兰、台湾和欧美等问题的文章。最近在台湾《自由时报》发表的一篇文章,是谈米兰.昆德拉被揭出当年曾做共产党线民问题。有兴趣的读者,可以从这个网址看到。http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2008/new/oct/19/today-o6.htm

跟波兰知识界有密切来往,对当今波兰情况非常了解的沈汉娜来信说,米奇尼克非常左倾,希望中国人不要听米奇尼克的建议。她又撰文表示,米奇尼克也给波兰开错了药方。我把她这篇英文短文译成中文,希望中国人也了解一下波兰人怎样看米奇尼克。下面是译文∶

自1989年起,作为《选举日报》的主编,米奇尼克尝试在波兰社会左右舆论、建构标准。他一度曾被称为波兰的政治正确之父。但在最近几年,他的影响力消失,他的报纸的销售量也骤减。为什麽那麽多的波兰人,包括一些波兰知识份子听不进去米奇尼克的话?回答很简单∶米奇尼克给共产主义垮台後的波兰开的药方没有效果。他开的是什麽药方呢?

第一,反对“除垢法”(除垢法是限制前共产党人,尤其是曾给共产党打小报告的秘密警察或线人,谋求政治和公共服务领域的位置)。除垢法在德国和捷克都做得很成功。但在波兰,米奇尼克领导的报纸指控除垢法的支持者有独裁者倾向。那些主张司法追究前共产党高官责任的人们,也受到米奇尼克的指责。米奇尼克和他的报纸非常虚伪,他们的报纸甚至雇用了前共产党的秘密警察。

第二,跟共产党人密切合作,持续试图描绘共产党人是管理国家的专家们。自1989年起,米奇尼克和许多共产官僚成为朋友,比方说雅鲁泽尔斯基将军。雅鲁泽尔斯基曾在1981年实施军管,但米奇尼克强烈反对追究雅鲁泽尔斯基的责任。发表在《选举日报》1990年5月1日的一篇文章中,米奇尼克表示,波兰共产党的财产不应退回给人民,後共产党人有拥有那些财产的权利!由於这份资源,前共产党精英得以继续主导波兰的银行、工业和媒体。

1989年之後,有一个对波兰共产党人实行的“爱的政策”,米奇尼克是创建者之一。由於这个政策,导致波兰在转型过程中缺乏司法正义的追求,此举阻止了我们重新构建信任社会、修复被摧毁的司法制度、以及促进各方和解。

现在,波兰人民开始懂得,米奇尼克给我们开的药方是错误的。但我们花了二十年才意识到这一点。

附∶沈汉娜的英文原文∶

Starting from 1989 Adam Michnik as the editor of Gazeta Wyborcza tried to create opinions and standards among Polish public. He was once called the father of political correctness in Poland. In the last few years, however, his influences vanished and his paper has faced a sudden drop in sale. Why did many of Poles, including some of the Polish intellectuals are deaf to what Michnik is saying- The answer is simple the medicine he prescribed to Poland after the collapse of communism did not work out.

What was this medicine?

First, anti-lustration. Lustration (excluding of participation of former communists, and especially informants of the communist secret police, in political and civil service positions) has been succesfully done in Germany and in Czech. In Poland the newspaper led by Michnik accused supporters of the lustration of dictatorial inclinations! Those who advocated the idea of bringing to justice the former communists high rank officials were condemned by Michnik. He and his newspaper were so hypocritical that they even employed in the paper former informats of communist secret police.(http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2008/new/oct/19/today-o6.htm)

Second, close cooperation with communists and constant attempts to describe communists as experts in running the country ! From 1989 Michnik befriended many communist apparatchiks for example general Wojciech Jaruzelski.

Michnik strongly opposed the prosecution of Jaruzelski who in 1981 proclaimed martial law in Poland. In the article written in his newspaper on May1st 1990 Michnik claimed that the assets of the Polish Communist Party should not be returned to the people and that the post-communist had the right to the assets! With this support communist party nomenklatura continued to dominate Polish banks, industry and media.

After 1989 Michnik was one of the creators of the the “love policy” towards Polish communist. As the result of this strategy Poland has suffered from lack of transitional justice and that has prevented us from rebuilding social trust, repairing a fractured justice system and promoting reconciliation.

Nowadays, Polish people started to understand that the medicine Michnik prescribed for us was wrong. However, it took us almost 20 years to realize it.

Hanna Shen

——原载自由亚洲电台

2010-08-18

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