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一位波蘭記者對米奇尼克的評價

曹長青

波蘭團結工會的重要參與者、波蘭最大報紙《選舉日報》的主編米奇尼克,最近到北京訪問,跟一些中國知識人座談,並上網回答問題。圍繞著米奇尼克對中國現狀的判斷和建議等,在海內外的一些知識份子中間引起了爭論。

支持者認為,米奇尼克是“波蘭反對派運動的設計者、靈魂人物”。他在波蘭的經驗,尤其是他給中國知識精英的建議(跟共產黨抗衡要講究策略,注重妥協等),對當今中國的民主運動具有重要意義。

但批評者認為,米奇尼克提出中國的反對派“應該是當權者的合作者”,“只要民間社會採取暴力,就會激起政府暴力,最後的結果是內戰。”“現在我們需要等待,等待共產黨人意識的變化”。“面對專制要採取革命的話,那必然是實施專制的革命者”等等,不僅和中國現實脫節,更等於是讓中國人做順民。在共產黨嚴酷鎮壓異議聲音的當今中國,反抗和鎮壓的力量完全不對等的現狀下,根本談不到什麼跟中共妥協、合作、討價還價;反而是應該啟迪和呼喚更多的中國人覺醒,認識到共產黨是邪惡這一真實,才可能有機會結束共產統治。

雙方的爭論逐步升級,最後支持米奇尼克的人提出,海外的流亡人士不如米奇尼克“懂中國”。而批評者則指出,國內的一些知識精英,由於資訊無法完全自由等,可能也不真正瞭解米奇尼克和波蘭。

在雙方爭論之際,波蘭駐台灣的記者沈漢娜(Hanna Shen),在網上讀到我的文章“米奇尼克給中國開錯藥方”之後,來信表示,她完全認同我的觀點。沈漢娜在共產波蘭出生、成長,後留學美國,近年則常住台灣。她為波蘭的報刊寫稿,也不時在中文報刊和她的博客http://hannashen.tripod.com上發表關於波蘭、台灣和歐美等問題的文章。最近在台灣《自由時報》發表的一篇文章,是談米蘭.昆德拉被揭出當年曾做共產黨線民問題。有興趣的讀者,可以從這個網址看到。http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2008/new/oct/19/today-o6.htm

跟波蘭知識界有密切來往,對當今波蘭情況非常瞭解的沈漢娜來信說,米奇尼克非常左傾,希望中國人不要聽米奇尼克的建議。她又撰文表示,米奇尼克也給波蘭開錯了藥方。我把她這篇英文短文譯成中文,希望中國人也瞭解一下波蘭人怎樣看米奇尼克。下面是譯文:

自1989年起,作為《選舉日報》的主編,米奇尼克嘗試在波蘭社會左右輿論、建構標準。他一度曾被稱為波蘭的政治正確之父。但在最近幾年,他的影響力消失,他的報紙的銷售量也驟減。為什麼那麼多的波蘭人,包括一些波蘭知識份子聽不進去米奇尼克的話?回答很簡單:米奇尼克給共產主義垮台後的波蘭開的藥方沒有效果。他開的是什麼藥方呢?

第一,反對“除垢法”(除垢法是限制前共產黨人,尤其是曾給共產黨打小報告的秘密警察或線人,謀求政治和公共服務領域的位置)。除垢法在德國和捷克都做得很成功。但在波蘭,米奇尼克領導的報紙指控除垢法的支持者有獨裁者傾向。那些主張司法追究前共產黨高官責任的人們,也受到米奇尼克的指責。米奇尼克和他的報紙非常虛偽,他們的報紙甚至雇用了前共產黨的秘密警察。

第二,跟共產黨人密切合作,持續試圖描繪共產黨人是管理國家的專家們。自1989年起,米奇尼克和許多共產官僚成為朋友,比方說雅魯澤爾斯基將軍。雅魯澤爾斯基曾在1981年實施軍管,但米奇尼克強烈反對追究雅魯澤爾斯基的責任。發表在《選舉日報》1990年5月1日的一篇文章中,米奇尼克表示,波蘭共產黨的財產不應退回給人民,後共產黨人有擁有那些財產的權利!由於這份資源,前共產黨精英得以繼續主導波蘭的銀行、工業和媒體。

1989年之後,有一個對波蘭共產黨人實行的“愛的政策”,米奇尼克是創建者之一。由於這個政策,導致波蘭在轉型過程中缺乏司法正義的追求,此舉阻止了我們重新構建信任社會、修復被摧毀的司法制度、以及促進各方和解。

現在,波蘭人民開始懂得,米奇尼克給我們開的藥方是錯誤的。但我們花了二十年才意識到這一點。

附:沈漢娜的英文原文:

Starting from 1989 Adam Michnik as the editor of Gazeta Wyborcza tried to create opinions and standards among Polish public. He was once called the father of political correctness in Poland. In the last few years, however, his influences vanished and his paper has faced a sudden drop in sale. Why did many of Poles, including some of the Polish intellectuals are deaf to what Michnik is saying- The answer is simple the medicine he prescribed to Poland after the collapse of communism did not work out.

What was this medicine?

First, anti-lustration. Lustration (excluding of participation of former communists, and especially informants of the communist secret police, in political and civil service positions) has been succesfully done in Germany and in Czech. In Poland the newspaper led by Michnik accused supporters of the lustration of dictatorial inclinations! Those who advocated the idea of bringing to justice the former communists high rank officials were condemned by Michnik. He and his newspaper were so hypocritical that they even employed in the paper former informats of communist secret police.(http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2008/new/oct/19/today-o6.htm)

Second, close cooperation with communists and constant attempts to describe communists as experts in running the country ! From 1989 Michnik befriended many communist apparatchiks for example general Wojciech Jaruzelski.

Michnik strongly opposed the prosecution of Jaruzelski who in 1981 proclaimed martial law in Poland. In the article written in his newspaper on May1st 1990 Michnik claimed that the assets of the Polish Communist Party should not be returned to the people and that the post-communist had the right to the assets! With this support communist party nomenklatura continued to dominate Polish banks, industry and media.

After 1989 Michnik was one of the creators of the the “love policy” towards Polish communist. As the result of this strategy Poland has suffered from lack of transitional justice and that has prevented us from rebuilding social trust, repairing a fractured justice system and promoting reconciliation.

Nowadays, Polish people started to understand that the medicine Michnik prescribed for us was wrong. However, it took us almost 20 years to realize it.

Hanna Shen

——原載自由亞洲電台

2010-08-18

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